Vitamin C - Ascorbic Acid
TITLE: Effect of vitamin C on blood glucose, serum lipids & serum insulin in type 2 diabetes patients.
RESULT: Our results indicate that daily consumption of 1000 mg supplementary vitamin C may be beneficial in decreasing blood glucose and lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes and thus reducing the risk of complications. (The dose of 500 mg vitamin C, however, did not produce any significant change in any of the parameters studied.)
METHODS: They received randomly either 500 mg or 1000 mg daily of vitamin C for six weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low and high density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), glycated haemoglobin HbA(Ic) and serum insulin were measured before and after vitamin C consumption and the results were analyzed.
Vitamin C is made naturally in almost all living animals except humans, primates and guinea pigs.
TITLE: Ascorbic Acid and Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Islets
Glucose is the main physiologic stimulator of insulin release in pancreatic p-cells (1)
TITLE: Vitamin C supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
NOTE: Observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin C intake and major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from clinical trials are less consistent.
RESULT: No relationship between Vitamin C supplementation and mortality / cvd
METHODS: Observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin C intake and major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from clinical trials are less consistent. We included eight trials with 15,445 participants randomised. The largest trial with 14,641 participants provided data on our primary outcomes.
(Johns Hopkins School of Medicine,)
TITLE: Effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
In short-term trials, vitamin C supplementation reduced SBP and DBP. Long-term trials on the effects of vitamin C supplementation on BP and clinical events are needed. (These trials, short term, lasted 8 weeks). In trials in hypertensive participants, corresponding reductions in SBP and DBP were -4.85 mm Hg (P < 0.01) and -1.67 mm Hg (P = 0.17).
METHODS: Twenty-nine trials dated from over the course of 45 years (2011-1966) show this result: reduction of SBP and DBP.
TITLE: Effects of individual micronutrients on blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
METHODS: From the 28,164 studies, 11 RCTs (13 interventions, 723 patients, 54% males) with 3 to 52 weeks of follow-up were classified according to the type of micronutrient intervention.
RESULT: Vitamin C reduced diastolic BP [WMD -2.88 mmHg (95%CI -5.31, -0.46; P = 0.020)] but not systolic BP [WMD -3.93 mmHg (95%CI -14.78, 6.92; P = 0.478)]. Vitamin D caused a reduction of 4.56 mmHg (WMD; 95%CI -7.65, -1.47; P = 0.004) for systolic BP and 2.44 mm Hg (WMD; 95%CI -3.49, -1.39; P < 0.001) for diastolic BP. In conclusion, vitamin D and possibly vitamin C have beneficial effects on BP in patients with type 2 diabetes.
TITLE: Redox-activation of vascular stores of NO by vitamin C
Full grant number: 5R01HL069029-05
RESULT: Recent clinical studies suggest that vitamin C (ascorbate) can reverse endothelial dysfunction by enhancing endogenous NO-mediated vasorelaxation.
TITLE: Vitamin C
Description: Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants. Antioxidants are nutrients that block some of the damage caused by free radicals.
Free radicals are made when your body breaks down food or when you are exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation.
The buildup of free radicals over time is largely responsible for the aging process.
Free radicals may play a role in cancer, heart disease, and conditions like arthritis.
Too little vitamin C can lead to signs and symptoms of deficiency, including:
Anemia, Bleeding gums, Decreased ability to fight infection, Decreased wound-healing rate
Dry and splitting hair, Easy bruising, Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums), Nosebleeds
Possible weight gain because of slowed metabolism, Rough, dry, scaly skin, Swollen and painful joints, Weakened tooth enamel
Dietary and topical ascorbic acid have beneficial effects on skin cells, Vitamin C contributes to photoprotection, decreases photodamage, and is needed for adequate wound healing.
DESCRIPTION: Vitamin C doesn't lower cholesterol levels or reduce the overall risk of heart attack, but evidence suggests it may help protect arteries against damage.
Some studies -- though not all -- suggest that vitamin C can slow down the progression of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)… keep the arteries flexible, and prevent damage from LDL “bad” cholesterol, which builds up as plaque in the arteries and can cause heart attack or stroke.
In addition, people who have low levels of vitamin C may be more likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or peripheral artery disease, all potential results of having atherosclerosis.
Population-based studies (which involve observing large groups of people over time) suggest that people who eat foods rich in antioxidants, including vitamin C, have a lower risk of high blood pressure than people who have poorer diets.
The diet physicians most frequently recommend for treatment and prevention of high blood pressure, known as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, includes lots of fruits and vegetables, which are loaded with antioxidants.
studies suggest that vitamin C may also be helpful for:
Maintaining healthy gums
Improving vision for those with uveitis (an inflammation of the middle part of the eye)
Treating allergy-related conditions, such as asthma, eczema, and hay fever (called allergic rhinitis)
Reducing effects of sun exposure, such as sunburn or redness (called erythema)
Alleviating dry mouth, particularly from antidepressant medications (a common side effect from these drugs)
Healing burns and wounds
Decreasing blood sugar in people with diabetes
Some viral conditions, including mononucleosis -- Although scientific evidence is lacking, some doctors may suggest high-dose vitamin C to treat some viruses.
SECONDARY URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8021423?dopt=Abstract
RESULTS: studies lead the authors to conclude that simple ascorbic acid is the preferred source of supplemental vitamin C .
RESULTS: oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins, is a major cause of cardiovascular disease [1,4,55]. In addition to its antioxidant properties, vitamin C has been shown to reduce monocyte adherence to the endothelium, improve endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production and vasodilation, and reduce vascular smooth-muscle-cell apoptosis, which prevents plaque instability in atherosclerosis
The free radical theory of aging posits that oxidative stress is among the major mechanisms in aging and age-related disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD).
RESULTS: In the Nurses’ Health Study, a 16-year prospective study involving 85,118 female nurses, total intake of vitamin C from both dietary and supplemental sources was inversely associated with coronary heart disease risk . However, intake of vitamin C from diet alone showed no significant associations, suggesting that vitamin C supplement users might be at lower risk of coronary heart disease.
CONCLUSION: “Users of vitamin C supplements appear to be at lower risk for CHD (coronary heart disease).”
Vitamin E (d-Alpha tocopheryl succinate)
TITLE: Vitamin E, oxidative stress, and inflammation.
RESULTS: “Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties.”
This form of Vitamin E is all-natural, and not synthetic like many of the cheap vitamin e supplements out there.
Note on ALL ANTIOXIDANTS (including Vitamin E d-Alpha tocopheryl succinate)
INFO: Researchers discovered that in people with type 2 diabetes, cytokine levels are elevated inside fat tissue. Their conclusion: Excess body fat, especially in the abdomen, causes continuous (chronic), low levels of abnormal inflammation that alters insulin's action and contributes to the disease.
As type 2 diabetes starts to develop, the body becomes less sensitive to insulin and the resulting insulin resistance also leads to inflammation.
“researchers know for sure that inflammation is somehow involved in the development of type 2 diabetes.”
On Cytokine levels: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2785020/
ABSTRACT: There is significant evidence showing that certain cytokines/chemokines are involved in not only the initiation but also the persistence of pathologic pain by directly activating nociceptive sensory neurons. Certain inflammatory cytokines are also involved in nerve-injury/inflammation-induced central sensitization, and are related to the development of contralateral hyperalgesia/allodynia.
ABSTRACT: Taken together, these results suggest that vitamin E is an important nutrient for maintaining the immune system, especially in the aged.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin E is essential for normal neurological function.
ABSTRACT: It has been widely noted that vitamin E shows numerous beneficial effects through and beyond its antioxidative properties; consequently, vitamin E is expected to prevent degenerative diseases. Supplementation with 100 to 200mg of vitamin E daily can be recommended for all endurance athletes to prevent exercise-induced oxidative damage and to reap the full health benefits of exercise.
Biotin (or Vitamin B7)
Biotin acts as a coenzyme in the body that’s needed for the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. This means that when we eat foods that are sources of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, vitamin B7 biotin must be present in order to convert and use these macronutrients for bodily energy, to carry out physical activities and for proper psychological functioning.
Biotin is also a nutrient that helps us keep a young, attractive appearance since it plays a major part in maintaining the health of our hair, nails and skin.
^^ Normal “blood sugar or blood pressure management diets” can leave your skin feeling dry, your hair thin and your complexion wrinkled… because it lacks the healthy fats your body needs to carry out its normal functioning.
Preliminary research suggests that supplemental biotin might help reduce blood sugar levels in people with either type 1 (childhood onset) or type 2 (adult onset) diabetes,1,2 and possibly reduce the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy.3
1. Maebashi M, Makino Y, Furukawa Y, et al. Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1993;14:211-218.
2. Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, et al. Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1985;447:389-392.
3. Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother. 1990;44:511-514.
TITLE: Combination of chromium and biotin improves coronary risk factors in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical trial.
METHOD: Participants were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive either CPB (600 microg chromium as chromium picolinate and 2 mg biotin) or a matching placebo once daily for 90 days. In the primary analysis, CPB lowered HbA1c (P<.05) and glucose (P<.02) significantly compared with the placebo group.
RESULT: No adverse effects from the Chromium picolinate and biotin combination. These data suggest that intervention with CPB improves cardiometabolic risk factors.
TITLE: Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial.
METHOD: Thirty-six moderately obese subjects with T2DM and with impaired glycemic control were randomized to receive CPB or placebo in addition to their oral hyperglycemic agents for 4 weeks. Measurements of blood lipids (including ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol), fructosamine, glucose, and insulin were taken at baseline and after 4 weeks.
RESULTS: At the final visit, the active group had a significantly lower AIP compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05). A significant difference in triglyceride level (P < 0.02) and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05) was also observed between the groups at the final visit.
TITLE: The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency.
ABSTRACT: The range of pathologies associated with Mg deficiency is staggering: hypertension (cardiovascular disease, kidney and liver damage, etc.), peroxynitrite damage (migraine, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, etc.), recurrent bacterial infection due to low levels of nitric oxide in the cavities (sinuses, vagina, middle ear, lungs, throat, etc.), fungal infections due to a depressed immune system, thiamine deactivation (low gastric acid, behavioral disorders, etc.), premenstrual syndrome, Ca deficiency (osteoporosis, hypertension, mood swings, etc.), tooth cavities, hearing loss, diabetes type II, cramps, muscle weakness, impotence (lack of NO), aggression (lack of NO), fibromas, K deficiency (arrhythmia, hypertension, some forms of cancer), Fe accumulation, etc.
(The list of illnesses related to Mg deficiency is insane… and “Almost half (48%) of the US population consumed less than the required amount of magnesium from food in 2005-2006, and the figure was down from 56% in 2001-2002.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22364157
TITLE: Magnesium, inflammation, and obesity in chronic disease.
In 2010: About 60% of adults in the United States do not consume the estimated average requirement for magnesium, but widespread pathological conditions attributed to magnesium deficiency have not been reported.
TITLE: Influence of magnesium status and magnesium intake on the blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSION: magnesium showed to play an important role in blood glucose control.
TITLE: Serum Magnesium and the Risk of Death From Coronary Heart Disease and Sudden Cardiac Death.
“a study which followed thousands of older men and women in the Netherlands for about 9 years found that those with the lowest blood serum magnesium levels (0.8 mmol/L and below) were 36% more likely to die from coronary heart disease and 54% more likely to experience sudden cardiac death over the course of the study than those with moderate levels”
RESULT: Low serum magnesium is associated with an increased risk of CHD mortality and SCD.
TITLE: Serum magnesium and risk of new onset heart failure in men: the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study.
RESULT: a study of middle-aged men in Finland followed for around 25 years also found lower serum magnesium to be associated with greater risk of future heart failure.
TITLE: Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
STUDY: The seven identified cohort studies of magnesium intake [from foods only (n = 4) or from foods and supplements combined (n = 3)] and incidence of type 2 diabetes included 286,668 participants and 10,912 cases.
RESULT: Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes.
“After reviewing studies which looked at 286,668 participants and 10,912 different cases — researchers in Stockholm Sweden at the Division of Nutritional Epidemiology concluded that magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes. Meaning increased consumption of magnesium can reduce type II diabetes.”
It supports immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, and a daily intake of zinc is important because the body cannot store it.
TITLE: Zinc and the immune system.
TITLE: Estimating the Global Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency: Results Based on Zinc Availability in National Food Supplies and the Prevalence of Stunting
ABSTRACT: An estimated 17.3% of the world’s population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake.
“Using the method described above, the estimated global prevalence of zinc deficiency is 31%
TITLE: Metabolic relationship between diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease affected by Cyclo(His-Pro) plus zinc treatment.
BACKGROUND: Association of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has been well established. Cyclo(His-Pro) plus zinc (Cyclo-Z) treatment ameliorated diabetes in rats and similar improvements have been seen in human patients. Treatment of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice with Cyclo-Z exhibited memory improvements and significantly reduced Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 protein levels in the brain tissues of the mice.
SCOPE OF REVIEW:
Metabolic relationship between AD and T2D will be described with particular attention to insulin sensitivity and Aβ degradation in brain and plasma tissues. Mechanistic effect of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) in decreasing blood glucose and brain Aβ levels will be elucidated. Cyclo-Z effects on these biochemical parameters will be discussed.
Stimulation of IDE synthesis is effective for the clinical treatment of metabolic diseases including AD and T2D.
Cyclo-Z might be the effective treatment of AD and T2D by stimulating IDE synthesis.
Important note: A class of medications called ACE inhibitors, used to treat high blood pressure, may decrease the levels of zinc in your blood.
Campylobacter jejuni (CAM-puh-low-back-ter juh-JUNE-eye) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States.
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of microbial foodborne illness worldwide. In fact, it has recently been shown that approximately 80% of poultry products are contaminated with this pathogen (11).
ZnO nanoparticles have been shown to have a wide range of antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including major foodborne pathogens like Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus (13, 14),
Most significantly, 0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 mg/ml of ZnO nanoparticles resulted in complete killing (100%) of 108 CFU/ml of C. jejuni cells in 3 h or less.
TITLE: Altered Concentrations of Copper, Zinc, and Iron are Associated With Increased Levels of Glycated Hemoglobin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Their First-Degree Relatives
BACKGROUND: The altered levels of some essential trace elements and antioxidant minerals have been observed in diabetic patients.
METHODS: We studied 46 subjects with T2DM, 46 FDR, and 50 control subjects matched for age and sex. Serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Fe were measured by colorimetric kit. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c were assayed using the standard kit.
RESULT: An imbalance in the levels of the studied metals was observed in both patients with T2DM and FDR. We found significantly decreased levels of Zn and higher levels of Cu and Fe in the patients with T2DM and FDR when compared with the control subjects (P < 0.05). HbA1c levels were positively correlated with Cu and Fe and inversely correlated with Zn in the patients with T2DM and FDR (P < 0.05).
The patients with T2DM and FDR had altered contents of Cu, Zn, and Fe that might be a predisposing factor to the development of diabetes in future or vice versa the result of diabetes development. Impaired metabolism of these elements may contribute to the augmented risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus later in the life of their first-degree relatives.
The age range was 38 - 80 with the median age of 52 years old.
In addition, healthy controls as well as relatives of diabetic patients with abnormal glucose tolerance, cardiovascular disease, or any other chronic and acute illness, and history of certain drugs use were excluded. None of the participants had taken vitamin and mineral supplements.
The crucial role of Cu and Zn in oxidative stress is well-known (9, 35). Cu and Zn are needed for the essential activity of antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Abnormal metabolism of Cu and Zn can affect the function of SOD and result in decreased protection of cells from superoxide radical (29, 30). Changes in the levels of Cu, Zn, and Cu/Zn ratio by influencing the antioxidant defense system might elevate the toxic effect of free radicals. Besides, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia increase the production of free radicals and decrease the efficiency of antioxidant defense systems, which may lead to the complications of diabetes (7, 36).
It has been frequently reported that Zn deficiency is associated with diabetic complications such as hypertension, retinopathy, thrombosis, reduced insulin secretion, and increased tissue resistance to insulin action in T2DM (6, 8).
TITLE: Toxicity of copper intake: lipid profile, oxidative stress and susceptibility to renal dysfunction.
CONCLUSION: High Cu intake induced dyslipidemic profile, oxidative stress and kidney dysfunction in diabetic condition. Copper renal toxicity was associated with oxidative stress and reduction at least, one of the antioxidant enzymes.
SECONDARY URL: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp60.pdf
TITLE: TOXICOLOGY PROFILE FOR ZINC
NOTE: Zinc controls copper in the body. Zinc and copper compete against one another as antagonist in order to properly regulate the physiological pathways in your body. The proper balance between the two trace minerals is critical to maintaining health.
Unlike zinc, copper can readily accumulate in the body into toxic concentrations. In order to maintain adequate zinc levels, a higher dose of zinc compared to copper is required daily.
Copper to Zinc ratio should be 1:8 (Zinc 8x the amount of Copper)
TITLE: Battles with iron: manganese in oxidative stress protection.
ABSTRACT: The redox-active metal manganese plays a key role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress.
FINDINGS: Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (SOD2), also known as manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the SOD2 gene on chromosome 6. Mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic cardiomyopathy (IDC), premature aging, sporadic motor neuron disease, and cancer.
TITLE: Role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases.
CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress in cardiac and vascular myocytes describes the injury caused to cells resulting from increased formation of ROS and/or decreased antioxidant reserve
Antioxidant therapy has been shown to exert beneficial effects in hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies and congestive heart failure.
The existing evidence support the view that oxidative stress may play a crucial role in cardiac and vascular abnormalities in different types of cardiovascular diseases and that the antioxidant therapy may prove beneficial in combating these problems.
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the principal antioxidant enzyme in the mitochondria. Because mitochondria consume over 90% of the oxygen used by cells, they are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress.
Manganese plays a particularly important role as part of the natural antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which helps fight damaging free radicals.
TITLE: Selenium, Vanadium, and Chromium as Micronutrients to Improve Metabolic Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Trace metals play an important role in the proper functioning of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some of the trace metals are thus essential for maintaining homeostasis, while deficiency of these trace metals can cause disorders with metabolic and physiological imbalances. This article concentrates on three trace metals (selenium, vanadium, and chromium) that may play crucial roles in controlling blood glucose concentrations possibly through their insulin-mimetic effects.
Chromium is important for insulin function. Chromium picolonate may help some people with type 2 diabetes decrease fasting blood glucose levels as well as levels of insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Chromium may also product modest weight loss, although the evidence is mixed.
Chromium’s most important function in the body is to help regulate the amount of glucose (sugar_ in hte blood. Insulin plays a role in this fundamentla process, by regulating the movement of glucose out of hte blood and into the cells. Scientists believe that insulin uses chomroium as an assistant (technically, a cofactor) to “unlock the door” to the cell membrane, thus allowing glucose to enter thecell.
In a double blind, placebo controlled stuy, 180 people with type 2diabetes were given a placebo, 200 mcg of chromium picolonate, or 1000 mcd chromium picolinate daily. The results showed that HbA1c avlues (a measure of long term blood sugar control) improved significantly after 2 months in the group receiving 1000 mcg and in both chromium groups after 4 months. Fasting glucose (a measure of short term blood sugar control) was also lower in the group taking the higher dose of chromium.
Banaba Leaf (Lagerstroemia Speciosa)
Note: The blood sugar regulating properties of corosolic acid, the active ingredient in banaba leaf, have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal, and human studies. ... In fact, some studies have shown that it can help lower blood sugar within sixty minutes.
TITLE: Toxicity studies on herbal formulation used in diabetes mellitus.
RESULT: It is concluded that formulation does not showed any chronic toxicity in adult dose.
TITLE: Inhibitory effects of eucalyptus and banaba leaf extracts on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fructose/high-glucose diet in rats.
RESULTS: These results suggest that ELE and BLE reduced lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine expression and thus inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats.
TITLE: A Review of Natural Stimulant and Non-stimulant Thermogenic Agents.
RESULTS: Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non-stimulatory or a combination thereof. Examples of stimulatory thermogenic agents that will be discussed include ephedrine and caffeine. The use of the aforementioned thermogenic agents in combination with other extracts such as those derived from Salacia reticulata, Sesamum indicum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cissus quadrangularis, and Moringa olifera, as well as the use of the carotenoids as lutein and fucoxanthin, and flavonoids as naringin and hesperidin can further facilitate energy metabolism and weight management as well as sports performance without adverse side effects.
TITLE: Insulin sensitizer in prediabetes: a clinical study with DLBS3233, a combined bioactive fraction of Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa.
Methods: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled preliminary study.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DLBS3233, a novel bioactive fraction derived from Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa, in improving insulin resistance and preserving β-cell performance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
RESULTS: After 12 weeks, DLBS3233 improved insulin resistance better than placebo as reflected by a reduced HOMA-IR (-27.04%±29.41% vs -4.90%±41.27%, P=0.013). The improvement of the first- and second-phase insulin secretion was consistently greater in DLBS3233 group than placebo group (-144.78±194.06 vs -71.21±157.19, P=0.022, and -455.03±487.56 vs -269.49±467.77, P=0.033, respectively). Further, DLBS3233 also significantly better improved oral disposition index than placebo. No serious hypoglycemia, edema, or cardiovascular-related adverse events were found in either groups.
CONCLUSION: This study has shown that DLBS3233 at the dose of 50-100 mg once daily was well tolerated, and promisingly efficacious in improving insulin sensitivity as well as preserving β-cell performance in subjects with IGT.
TITLE: Protective effects of Lagerstroemia speciosa on 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells.
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pancreatic β cell death affects insulin secretion and is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Lagerstroemia speciosa, a traditional folk medicine, has been used for t he prevention and treatment of diabetes. However, whether Lagerstroemia speciosa has a cytoprotective effect on pancreatic β cells remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effects of hot water extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves (LWE) on 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced oxidative damage in Syrian hamster pancreatic insulinoma HIT-T15 cells. The HIT-T15 cells were first treated with SIN-1 (50 µM) for 24 h and then co-incubated with LWE for 48 h. SIN-1 significantly decreased HIT-T15 cell viability (P<0.05); however, LWE did not exert a significant cytotoxic effect and increased the viability of HIT-T15 cells in a dose‑dependent manner. To further investigate the protective effects of LWE on SIN-1‑induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 cells, the cellular levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), were determined. LWE decreased the intracellular levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation, and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that LWE has a cytoprotective effect against SIN-1‑induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 cells through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, a decrease in ROS levels and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. In addition, LWE increased insulin secretion in SIN-1-treated HIT-T15 cells. Our results suggested that LWE were effective in the treatment of diabetes. Further studies are required to study the anti-diabetic molecular mechanism in a cell model.
TITLE: A review of the efficacy and safety of banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) and corosolic acid.
ABSTRACT: The hypoglycemic effects of banaba have been attributed to both corosolic acid as well as ellagitannins. Pure corosolic acid has been reported to decrease blood sugar levels within 60 min in human subjects. Corosolic acid also exhibits antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antineoplastic and osteoblastic activities. The beneficial effects of banaba and corosolic acid with respect to various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism appear to involve multiple mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis and the regulation of lipid metabolism. Banaba extract, corosolic acid and other constituents may be beneficial in addressing the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as offering other health benefits.
TITLE: Therapeutic effects of guggul and its constituent guggulsterone: cardiovascular benefits.
RESULTS: Oleogum resin (known as guggul) from the guggul tree has been used to treat various diseases including hyper-cholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, rheumatism, and obesity over several thousands of years. the cumulative data from in vitro, preclinical, and clinical studies largely support the therapeutic claims for guggul described in the ancient Ayurvedic text. The cardiovascular benefits of the therapy are derived from the multiple pharmacological activities associated with guggul or guggulsterone, notably its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities. It has been established that guggulsterone is an antagonist at farnesoid x receptor (FXR), a key transcriptional regulator for the maintenance of cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis. The FXR antagonism by guggulsterone has been proposed as a mechanism for its hypolipidemic effect. A recent study demonstrates that guggulsterone upregulates the bile salt export pump (BSEP), an efflux transporter responsible for removal of cholesterol metabolites, bile acids from the liver. Such upregulation of BSEP expression by guggulsterone favors cholesterol metabolism into bile acids, and thus represents another possible mechanism for its hypolipidemic (a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia) activity.
Web MD URL: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-591-guggul.aspx?activeingredientid=591
Osteoarthritis. Early research suggests that taking 500 mg of guggul (containing 3.5% guggulsterones) three times daily might improve arthritis pain.
Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggests that taking guggul 3000 mg daily for 4 months can improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
TITLE: Protective Effect of Guggulipid in High Fat Diet and Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) Induced Ischemic Cerebral Injury in Rats.
ABSTRACT: The role of guggulipid was evaluated in high fat diet and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced ischemic cerebral dysfunctions in rats of either sex.
RESULTS: Locomotor activity and grip strength were significantly decreased in HFD and HFD fed MCAO groups and improved significantly in pretreatment groups. Cerebral infarction, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFα) levels were increased, pretreatment of guggulipid alone and with aspirin significantly reduced these markers. Reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, levels were decreased but all drug pretreated groups showed significant improvement in those markers.
CONCLUSION: Guggulipid demonstrated neuroprotection owing to its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities but further research is warranted to confirm its role in cerebral ischemia.
TITLE: Identification of a novel agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma that may contribute to the anti-diabetic activity of guggulipid in Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice.
ABSTRACT: The ethyl acetate extract of the gum of the guggul tree, Commiphora mukul (guggulipid), is marketed for the treatment of dyslipidaemia and obesity. We have found that it protects Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice from diabetes and have investigated possible molecular mechanisms for its metabolic effects, in particular those due to a newly identified component, commipheric acid. Both guggulipid (EC(50)=0.82 microg/ml) and commipheric acid (EC(50)=0.26 microg/ml) activated human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the receptor and a reporter gene construct. These results raise the possibility that guggulipid has anti-diabetic activity due partly to commipheric acid's PPARalpha/gamma agonism, but the systemic bioavailability of orally dosed, pure commipheric acid appears poor. Another component may contribute to guggulipid's anti-diabetic and hypocholesterolaemic activity by stimulating LXRalpha.
Bitter Melon (extract)
TITLE: Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium.
ABSTRACT: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: BM extract failed to positively affect T2DM- and cardiovascular-related outcomes at a level suggesting use as a standalone treatment. Nevertheless, the encouraging effects of BM in enhancement of cardiac function, suppression of post-ischemic/reperfused infarct size extent and capacity to modulate serum cholesterol, will likely make it useful as an adjuvant therapy for the management of T2DM and related cardiovascular diseases.
NOTE: Bitter melon contains at least three active substances with anti-diabetic properties, including charantin, which has been confirmed to have a blood glucose-lowering effect, vicine and an insulin-like compound known as polypeptide-p.
ABSTRACT 1: In January 2011, the results of a four-week clinical trial were published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, which showed that a 2,000 mg daily dose of bitter melon significantly reduced blood glucose levels among patients with type 2 diabetes, although the hypoglycemic effect was less than a 1,000 mg/day dose of metformin. 
STATEMENT: It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine… “More than 1/3 people use some form of complementary and alternative treatment for their blood balance. A number that’s projected to grow 200% in the next 3 years.”
STATEMENT: Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) has been credited with antidiabetic, antiseptic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, and immunostimulant properties.2
ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined efficacy and associated mechanism of a novel agent bitter melon juice (BMJ) against pancreatic carcinoma cells both in culture and nude mice.
Overall, BMJ exerts strong anticancer efficacy against human pancreatic carcinoma cells, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its clinical usefulness.
ABSTRACT: Wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviate Seringe in diets promoted lipid metabolism, improved low blood glucose in sepsis, and attenuated inflammatory stress. These findings suggested that this plant food might provide medical benefits for certain persons.
CONCLUSION: Wild bitter gourd in diets promoted lipid metabolism, improved low blood glucose in sepsis, and attenuated inflammatory stress. These findings suggested that this plant food might provide medical benefits for certain persons.
Licorice Root Extract
“Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae… has beneficial applications in both the medicinal and the confectionery sectors. Unlike its usage in Europe, liquorice in traditional Chinese medicine is commonly combined with other herbs in a single prescription, as a unique "guide drug" to enhance the effectiveness of other ingredients, to reduce toxicity, and to improve flavor in almost half of Chinese herbal formulas. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological research to explain this unique "guide" effect is suggested for future investigations.”
TITLE: University of Maryland : Licorice
One study found that a preparation of licorice may reduce body fat. Fifteen people of normal
weight consumed 3.5 g of licorice each day for 2 months. Body fat was measured before and after treatment. Licorice appeared to reduce body fat mass and to suppress the hormone aldosterone; however, the people in the study retained more water.
Another study found that a topical preparation of glycyrrhetinic acid (a component of licorice) reduced the thickness of fat on the thigh in human subjects. A third study found that people who took 900 mg of licorice flavonoid oil daily for 8 weeks experienced reductions in body fat, body weight, body mass index, and LDL cholesterol levels. More studies are needed to say if licorice really helps reduce fat. In addition, taking licorice long term has a number of health risks.
References for above claims:
Armanini D, De Palo CB, Mattarello MJ, et al. Effect of licorice on reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003;26:646-50.
Armanini D, Nacamulli D, Francini-Pesenti F, Battagin G, Ragazzi E, Fiore C. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application. Steroids. 2005 Jul;70(8):538-42.
ABSTRACT: The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells.
Cinnamon Bark Powder
(CHROMIUM^ & Cinnamon)
TITLE: A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
GOAL: Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed.
METHOD: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization.
RESULTS: Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement.
CONCLUSION: Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG *fasting plasma glucose* and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes.
TITLE: Acute effect of Ceylon cinnamon extract on postprandial glycemia: alpha-amylase inhibition, starch tolerance test in rats, and randomized crossover clinical trial in healthy volunteers.
BACKGROUND: Postprandial hyperglycemia is a known risk factor for the development of several health disorders including type 2 diabetes, obesity, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases. One encouraging approach for a better control of postprandial glycemia is to reduce carbohydrate digestion. Cinnamon extracts have been known for managing blood glucose.
METHOD: Blood samples were collected during the 2 hours following the meal to measure glucose and insulin concentrations.
RESULTS: CCE has demonstrated in the in vitro study that it inhibited pancreatic alpha-amylase activity with an IC50 of 25 μg/mL. In the in vivo study, CCE was shown to acutely reduce the glycemic response to starch in a dose-dependent manner in rats. This effect was significant from the dose of 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. In both, the in vitro and in vivo studies, the hydro-alcoholic extract has shown to be more efficacious than the aqueous extract. In the human clinical trial, 1 g of CCE lowered the area under the curve of glycemia between 0 and 120 min by 14.8% (P = 0.15) and between 0 and 60 min by 21.2% (P < 0.05) compared to the placebo. This effect occurred without stimulating insulin secretion. No adverse effects were reported.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Ceylon cinnamon hydro-alcoholic extract (CCE) may provide a natural and safe solution for the reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia and therefore help to reduce the risks of developing metabolic disorders.
TITLE: Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30 women aged 52.2 +/- 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period.
RESULTS: After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), triglyceride (23-30%), LDL cholesterol (7-27%), and total cholesterol (12-26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL cholesterol were not significant.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
TITLE:Cinnamaldehyde prevents endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose by activating Nrf2
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that CA (Cinnamaldehyde) protected endothelial dysfunction under high glucose conditions and this effect was mediated by Nrf2 activation and the up-regulation of downstream target proteins. CA administration may represent a promising intervention in diabetic patients who are at risk for vascular complications.
NOTE: Role of Nrf2 in Oxidative Stress and Toxicity
“The nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance to oxidants. Nrf2 controls the basal and induced expression of an array of antioxidant response element–dependent genes to regulate the physiological and pathophysiological outcomes of oxidant exposure. This review discusses the impact of Nrf2 on oxidative stress and toxicity and how Nrf2 senses oxidants and regulates antioxidant defense.”
Claim: “Cinnamon combined with magnesium, diet and lifestyle changes may lead to overall reductions in blood pressure up to 25mm Hg” — "Cinnamon itself has insulin-like activity and also can potentiate the activity of insulin. The latter could be quite important in treating those with type 2 diabetes. Cinnamon has a bio-active component that we believe has the potential to prevent or overcome diabetes," researcher Don Graves said in a prepared statement.
Cinnamon alone without any diet and lifestyle changes is associated with reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 5.39 and 2.6 mmHg, report scientists in Nutrition .
ABSTRACT: The pooled estimate of the effect of cinnamon intake on SBP and DBP demonstrated that the use of cinnamon significantly decreased SBP and DBP by 5.39 mm Hg (95% CI, –6.89 to –3.89) and 2.6 mm Hg (95% CI, –4.53 to –0.66) respectively. (Studies were pooled from the MEDLINE database).
CONCLUSION: Consumption of cinnamon (short term) is associated with a notable reduction in SBP (systolic blood pressure) and DBP (diastolic blood pressure).
The Cinnamon-Blood Pressure Connection. According to a 2006 study conducted by the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, cinnamon actually helps reduce blood pressure in people with diabetes. (The researchers also noted that cinnamon reduces systolic blood pressure in people without diabetes, too.)
"However, the precise relationship between blood pressure regulation and the effect of cinnamon in humans remains unclear and to be established in future studies.”
TITLE: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant
ABSTRACT: The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas.
There is evidence this powder is effective against cardiovascular disease and obesity. (See section 7.7 of overview article.) Also of relevance to an aging demographic are its anti-inflammatory properties (7.5) and anti-arthritis mechanisms (7.2).
a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats treated with G. sylvestre, C. auriculata, E. jambolanum, and S. reticulata and the effects were quite similar to insulin and glibenclamide treated mice.
The antibiotic and antimicrobial activity of different extracts of G. sylvestre was determined  against a number of pathogens, namely, S. aureus, E. coli, and B. subtilis.
It can be inferred from the studies that the methanolic and ethanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre possesses considerable antibiotic and antimicrobial activity.
Anticancer potential of gymnemagenol on HeLa cancer cell lines in in vitro conditions, was determined.
^^Khanna V, Kannabiran K. Anticancer-cytotoxic activity of saponins isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre and Eclipta prostrata on HeLa cells. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2009;3(3):227–229.
Hence, a study was planed to evaluate the cytotoxic–anticancer potential of gymnemagenol and dayscyphin C, the isolated active principles from these two common medicinal plants on HeLa cells under in vitro conditions.
“Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the gymnemagenol of G. sylvestre and dayscyphin C of E. prostrata has a significant cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. “
Yarrow Flowers Powder
TITLE: Blood pressure lowering, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory actions of Achillea millefolium.
RESULTS: These results indicate that Achillea millefolium exhibits hypotensive, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory effects, thus explaining its medicinal use in hyperactive cardiovascular and airway disorders, such as hypertension and asthma.
TITLE: Safety and antiulcer efficacy studies of Achillea millefolium L. after chronic treatment in Wistar rats.
ABSTRACT: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), popularly known as yarrow, has been used in folk medicine to treat complaints such as inflammation, pain, wounds, hemorrhages and gastrointestinal disturbances.
Slight changes in liver weight, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and glucose were observed in male and female animals. These changes were not correlated with dose or time of exposure of the animals to the AE. Overall, the results show the antiulcer potential of the aerial parts of the Achillea millefolium which is accompanied by no signs of relevant toxicity even at very long chronic exposure.
Cayenne Pepper Powder
TITLE: Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives
ABSTRACT: ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time.
OVERVIEW: Capsaicinoids, CAPs, for short, are known tp stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, reducing appetite, encouraging the breakdown of body fats (lipolysis), and increasing feelings of satiety (fullness and lack of desire to snack), and increase metabolism through the activation of TRPV1, a heat activated calcium channel in the body.
Notes: Diabetes is a major risk factor in 347 million people in worldwide population and it may increase by 2030 and will be the leading cause of death . Hypertension is another major risk factor and independently associated with hyperglycemia, renal failures, and nephropathy in diabetes, endothelial dysfunction, and all-cause mortality. CHD risk increases by 29% and stroke risk increases by 46% in people with an increase in diastolic blood pressure of 7.5 mmHg. Individuals who steadily lose about 1 to 2 lbs. per week are more successful at keeping weight off and every pound of weight loss may reduce the risk of diabetes by 16% .
The science supports an association between capsaicin/capsaicinoids (CAPs), containing food consumption and a lower incidence of obesity [6, 16].
APs in the diets increase satiety and fullness and reduce food intake . After dinner, capsaicin prevents the effects of the negative energy balance on desire to eat. In a recent open label study , one hundred fifty active individual healthy subjects were studied for a week with supplementation with 2 mg CAPs from capsicum extract (Capsimax) reported 7% statistical significant decrease in appetite. Further studies are warranted in double blind placebo controlled studies. Thus CAPs are a natural source that effectively inhibits adipogenesis and activates adipocyte cycle at various levels and potentially stimulates lipolysis activity.
Capsicum has been shown to help improve metabolism and hormone function  and stabilize blood glucose; successful body mass loss was associated with higher initial body mass  and reduced insulin and leptin resistance . (Dietary capsaicin reduces obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19798065)
Studies referenced in previous study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951333
CAPs may increase endothelial function, blood flow to tissues, lipolysis, and the catabolism of glucose and fatty acids, inhibit fatty acid synthesis, and reduce oxidative stress, thereby improving overall metabolic health profile.
In humans, CAPs have also been linked to cardiovascular health, by improving endothelial function , activating brown fat thermogenesis and reducing body fat , and inhibiting LDL-cholesterol oxidation , and increase the resistance of serum lipoproteins to oxidation . CAPs reduce atherosclerosis and cholesterol absorption, maintain aortic integrity, reduce lipids in blood, decrease ratio of plasma campesterol/cholesterol, and increase fecal excretion of sterols in animal models [53, 65]
Current studies suggest that CAPs may reduce CHD risk factors, improve endothelial function, maintain aortic functionality, reduce atherosclerotic plaque development, and inhibit fat and cholesterol absorption and gene expression of major transcription receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism in animal models.
Juniper Berry Powder
CONCLUSION: The results give a scientific basis to the traditional utilization of these Juniperus species, also demonstrating their potential as sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.
ABSTRACT: Berries are a good source of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, micronutrients, and fiber. In epidemiological and clinical studies, these constituents have been associated with improved cardiovascular risk profiles. Human intervention studies using chokeberries, cranberries, blueberries, and strawberries (either fresh, or as juice, or freeze-dried), or purified anthocyanin extracts have demonstrated significant improvements in LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity, dyslipidemia, and glucose metabolism. Benefits were seen in healthy subjects and in those with existing metabolic risk factors. Underlying mechanisms for these beneficial effects are believed to include upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, decreased activities of carbohydrate digestive enzymes, decreased oxidative stress, and inhibition of inflammatory gene expression and foam cell formation. Though limited, these data support the recommendation of berries as an essential fruit group in a heart-healthy diet.
White Mulberry Leaf
According to web md: Diabetes. The powdered leaves of white mulberry seem to lower blood sugar in people who have type 2 diabetes. Taking 1 gram of the powdered leaf three times a day for 4 weeks decreased fastingblood sugar levels by 27%, compared with an 8% decrease with the diabetes medicine glyburide, 5 mg daily.
TITLE: White mulberry supplementation as adjuvant treatment of obesity.
ABSTRACT: Body weight is controlled by our genes and managed by a neuro-hormonal system, in particular by insulin and glucagon. The meristematic extract of Japanese white mulberry blocks the alpha-glucosidase and then the intestinal hydrolysis of polysaccharides, thereby reducing the glycaemic index of carbohydrates. The target of our research was to evaluate the adjuvant slimming effect of the extract of white Japanese mulberry in the dietetic treatment of some patients who are obese or overweight. 46 overweight people were enrolled and divided into two subgroups: the subjects of both subgroups were given an identical balanced diet of 1300 kcal: subjects of the subgroup alpha received 2400 mg of white Japanese mulberry extract, the subgroup b subjects receive placebo. Each subgroup was followed-up every 30 days at 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment. Both in the periodic inspections and in the final inspection measurements of body weight and waist circumference in all the subjects and thigh circumference in women only were repeated. All subjects repeated blood tests. In the subgroup alpha, weight loss was about 9 kg in 3 months, equal to approximately 10 percent of the initial weight, significantly higher than subgroup beta (P<0.0001); moreover, the plasma insulin and glucose curves of the volunteers in this subgroup at the end of the trial were lower than those performed at the time of enrolment. In the 20 women of the beta subgroup treated with only low-calorie diet and with placebo, weight reduction was globally of 3.2 kg, approximately equal to 3 percent of the initial weight; moreover, the blood glucose curves and the insulin curves showed a slight decline compared to baseline, but not so significantly as was the case for group alpha. Waist circumference and thigh circumference (in women) decreased in all participants, obviously more evidently in subjects who lost more kg. The extract of white Japanese mulberry may represent a reliable adjuvant therapy in the dietetic treatment of some patients who are obese or overweight.
One new study from the International Journal of Pharmacology shows evidence of a connection between white mulberry and high blood pressure relief. (https://www.accesswire.com/422439/Recent-Study-Shows-Benefits-of-White-Mulberry-for-High-Blood-Pressure)
TITLE: Effect of mulberry (Morus indica L.) therapy on plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS: Patients with mulberry therapy significantly improved their glycemic control vs. glibenclamide treatment. The results from pre- and post-treatment analysis of blood plasma and urine samples showed that the mulberry therapy significantly decreased the concentration of serum total cholesterol (12%, p<0.01), triglycerides (16%, p<0.01), plasma free fatty acids (12%, p<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (23%, p<0.01), VLDL-cholesterol (17%, p<0.01), plasma peroxides (25%, p<0.01), urinary peroxides (55%, p<0.01), while increasing HDL-cholesterol (18%, p<0.01). Although the patients with glibenclamide treatment showed marginal improvement in glycemic control, the changes in the lipid profile were not statistically significant except for triglycerides (10%, p<0.05), plasma peroxides (15%, p<0.05), and urinary peroxides (19%, p<0.05). Both treatments displayed no apparent effect on the concentrations of the glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A(1)c) in diabetic patients. However, the fasting blood glucose concentrations of diabetic patients were significantly reduced by the mulberry therapy.
CONCLUSIONS:Mulberry therapy exhibits potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic patients.
NOTE: Constituting 0.015% of the earth's crust, vanadium is almost as abundant as zinc. It is omnipresent in the biosphere, another precondition for general availability for living organisms. Vanadium is the second most abundant transition element in seawater (45 nM), only below to molybdenum (100 nM) and more abundant than iron (0.02-1 nM) .
TITLE: Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers.
Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. “the Vanadium exposed workers had higher levels of ‘good cholesterol’ HDL-C and a healthier balance with overall cholesterol and ‘bad cholesterol’ LDL-C that is a strong factor in heart disease in comparison to the non-Vanadium exposed workers.”
TITLE: [Benefit of vanadium compound in therapy for cardiovascular diseases].
RESULT: Taken together vanadium compound are possible therapeutics for cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure following hypertension in postmenopausal women.
TITLE: Vanadium and diabetes
ABSTRACT: In the BB diabetic rat, a model of insulin-dependent diabetes, vanadyl sulfate lowered the insulin requirement by up to 75%. Vanadyl sulfate is effective orally when administered by either single dose or chronic doses. It is also effective by the intraperitoneal route. We have also been able to demonstrate marked long-term effects of vanadyl sulfate in diabetic animals following treatment and withdrawal of vanadyl sulfate. Because vanadyl sulfate is not well absorbed we have synthesized and tested a number of organic vanadium compounds.
TITLE: Vanadium in the detection, prevention and treatment of cancer: the in vivo evidence.
ABSTRACT: Over the past century, several biological effects of vanadium, such as insulin-mimetic action as well as amelioration of hyperlipidemia and hypertension, have been discovered.
TITLE: Why Antidiabetic Vanadium Complexes are Not in the Pipeline of “Big Pharma” Drug Research? A Critical Review
NOTES: In both more common states, vanadium complexes lower pathologic blood sugar levels. Because of their insulin-like activities, they are sometimes denominated as insulinomimetics, insulin-mimetics or insulin enhancers [2, 5, 22-36].
Alpha Lipoic Acid
TiTLE: Increasing bioavailability of (R)-alpha-lipoic acid to boost antioxidant activity in the treatment of neuropathic pain.
ABSTRAT: Neuropathic patients who have used this dietary supplement noticed an improvement in their quality of life and a significant reduction was observed in a number of certain descriptive pain parameters (intensity, burning, unpleasantness, superficial pain).
TITLE: Alpha lipoic acid inhibits proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition of thyroid cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: The naturally occurring short-chain fatty acid, α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a powerful antioxidant which is clinically used for treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Recent studies suggested the possibility of ALA as a potential anti-cancer agent.
This is the first study to show anti-cancer effect of ALA on thyroid cancer cells. ALA could be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of advanced thyroid cancer, possibly as an adjuvant therapy with other systemic therapeutic agents.
According to WEBMD: there is some evidence that ALA may have at least two positive benefits for individuals with type 2 diabetes. A few studies have suggested that alpha-lipoic acid supplements may enhance the body's ability to use its own insulin to lower blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. ALA may help reduce the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy -- nerve damage that can be caused by diabetes.
University of Maryland Medical School… Alpha Lipoic Acid
Because alpha-lipoic acid can pass easily into the brain, it may help protect the brain and nerve tissue. Researchers are investigating it as a potential treatment for stroke and other brain problems involving free radical damage, such as dementia. So far, there's no evidence to say whether or not it works.
TITLE: Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.
ABSTRACT: Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function.
TITLE: Effect of Taurine on Hemodiafiltration in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.
ABSTRACT: Taurine, an important factor in the living body, is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, retina and central nervous system. In the present study, its effect on cardiovascular function was specifically taken into consideration. In hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients, the effect of taurine on patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), in whom dry weight was difficult to control, was evaluated. All patients who were subjected to regular HDF for 4 h three times per week at Joban hospital were included in this study. Patients with chronic heart failure, in whom dry weight was difficult to control (N = 4), were included in the evaluation of clinical status. X-ray and echocardiography were determined before and after taurine treatment. Almost all patients were taking nitric acid, warfarin, anti-platelet agents and vasopressors. Because vital signs were unstable in chronic heart failure, all cases withheld antihypertensive drugs during HDF. For unstable vital signs during HDF, pulmonary congestion was chronically recognized. After taurine was started, vital signs stabilized and lowering of dry weight was possible. In addition, X-ray and cardiac diastolic failure on echocardiography improved. Taurine was effective for CHF patients on HDF in whom dry weight was difficult to control in spite of various medications.
TITLE: Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness
ABSTRACT: Taurine has antioxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise.
(exact formula w/ review of claim)